How to build a negative inductance ?


• zur ==> deutschen Version



This is a typical filter capacitor inside a measurement setup


In real life any capacitor comes with an additional parasitic inductance and a real resistance in series,

labeled Lc1 and Rc1 ( = ESL and ESR inside the data sheet)


what results in this characteristic frequency response


For low frequencies, the reactance of the capacitor is dominant – but above resonance, the parasitic inductance

is extremly disturbing :

There is nearly no more effect from a standard capacitor at high frequencies (> 100 MHz)


If we could create a negative inductance, equal to the parasitic inductance and in series, both inductances

would cancel each other (Lc1 – Lx = O ) independent of frequency


The filtering effect wouldn’t decay above resonance, but instead would remain constant

despite the rising frequency – as indicated with the dotted orange line


So – how do we get a negative inductance ?

Initially – this seems to be impossible:

passive, absolute, negative devices cannot be built in real life just like that, because they do not

comply with the conservation-of-energy-principle. Negative devices do not spend energy – instead

they would generate energy.

In other words – with such a negative device, you could drive a perpetual motion machine.

So – the question is:


How do we solve a problem that cannot be solved ?


The answer is – by means of shifting the problem !



We use a simple ordinary inductance


and place it inside a local field of negative time


The induced voltage across the inductance L is proportional to the change of current di/dt flowing through

To generate a reversed voltage across the inductor, we would either need an inductor with negative L,

or a current change with negative time : di/-dt

This would result in a voltage reversed to normal polarity.


But – how do we generate this field of negative time ?


Right – we use a time machine !



During a time travel into the past the time lapse is negative – the clock is proceeding backwards –

inside the effective area of the time machine, exactly the necessary local field of negative time is being formed.

Well – mission accomplished – minus the time maschine !

Let’s have a look to known time machines :

One of the first versions can be seen in the movie “The Time Machine”


Quite nice – but definitely too much mechanism for our purposes


Still – too complex !



And this ?


That’s it !

The Flux-Capacitor ! (= Flux-Kompensator)


Capacitor in this context is less referring to a capacitor device

but to its capacity of handling flux


If 2 of the flux elements are being excited by positive flux energy…


… there will come out a negative flux field across the 3rd element – generating the negative time !

So far the idea from the movie !



Now – the practical, electrical realization !

We supply current (i) to one of the connections of the flux capacitor


thus causing flux inside the element – Flux / i


The ratio of generated flux per current i we define as L


For each element of the flux capacitor – L1, L2, L3 accordingly …


… and suddenly realize, absolutely perplex – the flux capacitor is identical to a transformer !


The conversion of L1 and L2 follows the above given formulas …


… and – this is the point ! – L3 becomes in fact negative !

We built a passive, frequency-independent, negative inductance – using a time machine !

You don’t believe it ? Everything is correct !


For the experts – all the necessary conversions and formulas as overview



This is how a handmade negative inductance looks like in reality :



The capacitor is soldered to the center tap of the coil.

The area of the turn (inductance) and the distance between turns (coupling coefficient k) is such

as to generate a negative inductance at the connection to the capacitor, which is exactly of the

amount of parasitic inductance of the capacitor.

You can easily imagine the difficulty to accomplish this by hand (taking into account the tiny

dimensions) – so, normally you will have a deviation of about ±10%.

But even so – the result is impressing and amazing.

Ordinary capacitor
Capacitor connected to a negative inductance (as in the pictures above)



The method of building a negative inductance, was widely unknown until recently – though the physics

(transformer) and the corresponding formulas had been taught and applied since over 100 years.

However -asking what to do with negative results from calculating equivalent networks , students regularly

heard the reply, they could not use this – because there were no negative devices in reality !

And many people still believe so !(classic interpretation of negative inductance)

In fact – it is the other way round ! If the equivalent network results in a negative device – the real

network behaves as if there was such a device really present – though being invisible.

For additional information see to Filter using Negative Inductance


Just for fun – google for negative inductance and look what you get !

Or even worse – google for negative Induktivität and see what you get then !


  1. Simulation looks very interesting. Will it work for a circuit down at the VLF frequencies? Up to now only active circuits have been used for the VLF.

    Comment by Dennis Kozakoff — 18/07/2009 @ 20:47 | Reply

  2. This concept of building a negative inductance is per se frequency-independent.
    Normally, there is no big deviation between simulation and reality, as long as
    your components and parameters are linear and set correctly and you don’t have too much
    stray effects.
    This means, that you might get problems if you wanna use magnetic core coils instead of
    air coils and air coupling, because the coil and coupling parameters of magnetic core
    material is not fully linear and may also vary with frequency and temperature.

    Due to stray effects, skin effects etc. the simulation may work for a foil capacitor like
    in the simulation example up to 100 MHz. For the ceramic capacitor in the picture
    the principle did work well up to 1000 MHz.

    Comment by 4gang — 18/07/2009 @ 21:51 | Reply

  3. Oh, i forgot – i like your illustrative approach above, BUT i still cannot see where you got the MINUS (-) sign from in your derivation for L3 = -k…! Can you please show us where it came from?

    Comment by Glenn Roberts — 20/06/2010 @ 16:28 | Reply

    • Glenn – the minus sign for L3 is simply a consequence of the T-equivalent for a transformer.
      I had been inspired by the striking similarity between the T-model and the flux capacitor for this
      funny and stunning derivation (of negative inductance).

      Some more insight into this idea you can find in

      and more insight into the technical background you will find here


      Comment by 4gang — 20/06/2010 @ 17:34 | Reply

    • Glenn,

      I will phrase your question back to you: Where did YOU get the minus sign? Was it because someone taught it to you that way when you were an undergrad?

      The conventional equation for an ideal transformer is wrong and people have been fooled into believing an incorrect solution for over 100 years. I have evidence of this at VLF frequencies and the implications are big. 4gang is correct and a time reversed magnetic field does exist.

      Comment by Jules — 02/07/2010 @ 21:40 | Reply

  4. Hi 4gang,
    Can this negative inductance be scaled up say, to reach the size of a rather big coil with Litz wires and an ultracapacitor? Will the negative parameter be so big as to affect the time-space of the space inmediately adjacent to the negative component??
    What are the direct and practical implications of a modified curve of frequency response of a negative inductive device?

    Comment by aaron5120 — 22/06/2010 @ 12:19 | Reply

  5. hi GUYs
    To help this subject, I have a few scans of a work by Brailsford on such things as negative permeabilty (=> inductance) with graphs etc showing true negative values at certain frequencies and field strengths!!
    If you can provide a way to upload a few pictures here – i will share it with U

    Comment by Glenn Roberts — 01/07/2010 @ 02:36 | Reply

  6. would you provide drawings how did you connect capacitor with soldered coil to the network analyzer?

    Comment by Henryk — 26/07/2010 @ 19:22 | Reply

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    Comment by Burton Haynes — 23/01/2011 @ 16:55 | Reply

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    Comment by Tetris — 10/02/2011 @ 03:10 | Reply

  10. Right on!

    Comment by cevon — 21/07/2011 @ 02:48 | Reply

  11. Its wrong to use normal language in electrical terms to maths as negative is the reverse co efficiency of normal current and I do have a powerful free energy negative induction technology .The super flux cap is also a miss conceived math formula as it can not act as a negative field in a co efficient way unless its materials are also chosen to fit that equation ! Its also important not to use the same approach as a point of study as we would in normal electrical engineering as the time variable over resistance does not apply and ohms law is no longer included .

    I can make a simple coil negatively charged by altering the internal position of electrons to one side of that coil ! So we get a 100% compressed to one side of the coil and than super pump the coil with electrons ! The mass electrical charge of the coil becomes super negative by up to 10 000 % … Thats enough to levitate the coil and throw it into space …… Interesting diagrams but its best to
    start from fresh with a new language and formula to express the so called negative term but to be honest its neither negative or positive it more a shift of pressure inside a solid state atomic vacuum ! It make me wonder how such a simple reality is not considered by the likes of NASA ?

    BUT BE WARNED ! there ARE MANY risks in this energy type as all surrounding matter and possible time can be affected including gravity but not atomic nuclei as they are to close to the mass of the earth and there quantum relationship would only change if one was to apply the same amount of energy as to the atomic mass of the earth so forget negative mass ……. its impossible ! But negative co efficiency as an opposite effect to a positive EMF of resistance is a reality and is seen as the reason why galaxies are accelerating away into the inflation of the universe ! But that is another side to this energy and I do mean energy …..

    Comment by michael richardson — 19/11/2015 @ 23:20 | Reply

  12. Ok, so there IS a theoretical way to create a negative inductor (which can violate the CoE). Consider a negatively charged disk rotating, it deflects a compass as the moving charges create a magnetic field due to the relative motion between the HV neg. electrostatically charged disk and the Compass. Ok, so what if we move the compass around the stationary disk? Relativity insists that relative motion is relative motion, so it should feel a field as the compass sees the disk moving relative to it. But the magnetic field is not seen by us in the stationary frame, if we change the direction of rotation of the compass around the disk the field the compass sees flips. If the compass was an electron, what would it see as it accelerates? It would not see the magnetic field from it’s own motion as it isn’t moving relative to itself, it would see a magnetic field from stationary disk, ad in would be speed up in it’s acceleration around the disk, it would see negative impedance. An electron in a wire seems the protons as moving and see the magnetic field from that growing, but if the wire was negatively charged and bifilar, it would see negative induction!

    Comment by John — 04/11/2016 @ 03:53 | Reply

  13. John, the concept of a wire with a scalar charge generating a negative impedance is something I saw in another device but I am not clear on the explanation.

    > Consider a negatively charged disk rotating, it deflects a compass as the moving charges create a magnetic field due to the relative motion between the HV neg. electrostatically charged disk and the Compass.

    Lets consider the Lorentz Force (F=VxB). It describes a relationship between a velocity, magnetic field, and force each 90 degrees to each other. If we consider just the magnetic field (B-field) from the rotating charged disk then we can replace it with a magnet. The direction of the magnetic field is through the disk. If we have an electron circling the disk then the right-hand rule tells us that it will see a radial force either toward or away from the disk. The charge would apply an additional radial force (E-field).

    The key point here is that the forces work just like a gyroscope. A force applied on the electron around the disk is translated 90 degrees. We have a balanced action/reaction except that the reaction is 90 degrees to the action. If the electron is traveling through a wire around the disk then it would be pushed to the edge of the wire but the effect would be negligible. The B-field of the electron really does nothing here because the electrons quickly align or polarize with the surrounding B-field but as the electrons move around the disk they will generate another field parallel to the one created by the disk.

    > Ok, so what if we move the compass around the stationary disk? Relativity insists that relative motion is relative motion, so it should feel a field as the compass sees the disk moving relative to it.

    The Lorentz force can also address this case if we consider the the variable F as the force between the electron and the disk because of the E-field. The F is radial, V is around the disk, and B would be through the disk as before. This B field would be the field seen by the electron because of GR.

    > It would not see the magnetic field from it’s own motion as it isn’t moving relative to itself, it would see a magnetic field from stationary disk, ad in would be speed up in it’s acceleration around the disk

    The above statement is the one that seems incorrect. The F is radial and not around the disk so there would be no acceleration through the wire. As before the force would be on the edge of the wire but it would not do anything. This is similar to the skin effect where electrons are pushed to the edges of a wire at high frequencies.

    Comment by chadj2 — 12/11/2016 @ 22:18 | Reply

    • It’s a while since I wrote that and forgive me for not getting a better handle on it, but let me put another way what I was trying to say. Let’s sat there was train and train track. The Train is negatively charged and the track is positively charged. if you are standing on the tracks, do you see a magnetic field from the tracks? No. If you are standing on the tracks do you see a magnetic field from the negatively charged train moving by? Yes. It you are on the negatively charged train do you see a magnetic field (remembering all reference frames are equal) from the track which you are moving relative to? Yes. Do you see a magnetic field from the train which you are stationary relative to? No. Ok, so what if the track and the train are both charged negatively??? The train never moving relative to itself would never feel a magnetic field from itself, it would see a magnetic field from the track, as the train accelerates that magnetic field from the track would seem to grow in strength, and thanks to Lorentz we can see that it would place a force on the train, what direction is this force? Turns out, it will assist the acceleration!

      Comment by John — 07/03/2017 @ 22:59 | Reply

  14. I have a powerful negative free energy generator ! It best to dump the tex books when looking for free energy and with negative energy you need to include time as a force and mass as its partner charge in this respect or a magnetic field is not the important factor ! Negative drop permits velocity of both electron spin and the gain in mass for the electron as it gets closer to light speed.

    If you consider that time of one second is divided into the mass of an electron and an electron in a negative state moving towards a positive state we get a gain in velocity and that can result in gain in output.

    Time is related to distance try this very simple experiment with 3 dc 22000uf 35vDC capacitors as they are stable at 25vDC …….. Just set them out like this where C is the capacitor !

    +C 1- +C 2- +C 3- This separation as distance between capacitors is mostly missed out in normal circuits but its a very important effect when set out like this as you get a small 10% rise in the output volts !

    You can observe the electrons accelerating in quantised steps between c1 c2 c3 and we know electrons are quantised when jumping between energy levels and we can permit that to happen just by setting out the capacitors in the same way but with time over distance ! Also in 5ths along a harmonic root in chromatic order… This unifies the speed of the electron to the harmonic laws of chemistry light and sound !

    Then we can increase this when we learn to charge up a coil to a negative state where all the charged electrons occupy only one side of the coil ! I tend to keep that bit a secret but what it does is to propagate virtual electrons to occupy the overall gain with more electron mass when we keep increasing there speed to light speed ! The wont go beyond the speed of light and if you teach them to try and achieve that they just produce more and more virtual electrons …

    Simplicity is the only way to fully understand free energy and as you can see you only need 3 capacitors to learn that with ! I am a master of this kind of free energy effect as I invented it !

    I now only use harmonic laws of the unified fields that all energies resonate with ! I don’t even use the term volts or amps or ohms laws and lenz law is not considered in any of the equations ! Its just to far outside their box of mathematics that only define the box as laws of limitations yet the universe in not limited to any of their laws ! So why bother with them ?

    I can do everything from free energy to invisibility to zero gravity mass to worm holes and much more as I don’t permit limitations to entre the formula and just go with my own set of rules that to me are the real rules by which constructs all that is !

    I am here to help !



    Comment by michael richardson — 13/11/2016 @ 02:39 | Reply

  15. > Negative drop permits velocity of both electron spin and the gain in mass for the electron as it gets closer to light speed.

    I am not sure how you are getting relativistic electron speeds in a simple circuit. The typical speed of electrons through copper known as the drift velocity is on the order of mm/hr. (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drift_velocity)

    > You can observe the electrons accelerating in quantised steps between c1 c2 c3

    The only way for electrons to travel through space in an open circuit is arcing which takes much more than 35V and tunneling which requires a distance small than the width of a human hair.

    > you get a small 10% rise in the output volts

    If you have an open circuit showing a voltage it means that no current is traveling though the circuit.

    > Its just to far outside their box of mathematics that only define the box as laws of limitations yet the universe in not limited to any of their laws ! So why bother with them ?

    The discovery of most physics was preceded by the discovery of the math to describe it by about 100 years. In the case of Newton he invented the math required to describe his physics. In the case of Maxwell he used math to prove light was made of electromagnetism. One of the things I am investigating is how math can show how the holographic principle and Hubble constant can calculate the masses of the proton and electron. You can’t get much done in physics without math.

    Comment by chadj2 — 20/11/2016 @ 23:22 | Reply

  16. Hello chadj2 ! sorry for the delay in responding to you . I will respond much quicker ! Electron mass is formed from a point in time known as the big bang but before the bang only time existed suspended between past time present and future time … Then bang ! Mass can only exist if formed from nothing if time is condensed …. ELECTRONS QUANTUM JUMP ! And one can safely say that there is only one electron yet it seems like its many almost everywhere at the same time …

    The terms electron drift that flow in the opposite direction to the flow of current and electron speed require an additional term as the jump speed or the Q S speed of the jump …… VERY IMPORTANT !

    Negative drop say at the cathode is when electrons drop form one side of a coil to the other causing an imbalance creating a gain in pressure ! This is a free energy gain !

    The spin of an electron at 5.5 million mph for a free electron at rest at say -13.7 Ev at its lowest quantised charge is also a unified number over the age of the universe …. It will change when the universe is a perfected 13.8 billion years old ….. Any mass out side that change comes from a multi verse !

    Best to use this as the anchor for a unified electron field over time and one needs to understand the maths of quantum jumping electrons and to do that you need the numerological constant ……

    Other things to consider is calculus needs an up grade over the number one …… 1 and the new number is 1.01 ! 0.1 is a reflection of its quantum state …….

    If you require the know how as to form a negative coil let me know and I am happy to let you have that … I invented it !

    Keep it simple and very few limits including new forms of math ! You may also need the numerological constant and the unfed field so I will let you have that to …..


    Michael Richardson

    Comment by michael richardson — 07/03/2017 @ 20:11 | Reply

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